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‘Two Portraits by Leonardo: “Ginevra de’Benci” and the “Lady with an Ermine”’, in Artibus et Historiae, Vol. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. It bridged the periods of the Middle Ages and modern history, and, depending on the country, overlaps with the Early Modern, Elizabethan and Restoration periods. The Harlem Renaissance was a significant historical movement that originated in Harlem, New York and helped establish the city as an African American cultural center. [24] Unlike most of the city-states surrounding Florence, which were feudal dictatorships, Florence was a republic with elected representatives. [33] Thus, Florence contrasted sharply with the rural, tradition-bound society of medieval Europe; it was less hierarchical and more outward looking and concerned with secular objectives, such as commerce. Essays in Honour of H.G. [42] Nonetheless, these features of Florentine society do not detract enough from the achievements of the Renaissance, which had moved away from feudalism due to the new influences of humanism and platonic ideals and created ‘a Golden age’. [15] Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 406; E.H. Gombrich,  ‘Renaissance and Golden Age’, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. Renaissance the revival of art, literature and learning in Western Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries which accompanied the rediscovery of the thought and work of the Ancients, e.g. Kent, ‘Lorenzo…amico degli uomini da bene – Lorenzo de’Medici and Oligarchy’, 44-45; John M Najemy, ‘Baron’s Machiavelli and Renaissance Republicanism’, 119-129. Another common feature during the Islamic Golden Age was the large number of Muslim polymath scholars, who were known as "Hakeems", each of whom contributed to a variety of different fields of both religious and secular learning, comparable to the later "Renaissance Men" (such as Leonardo da Vinci) of the European Renaissance period. [13] Guicciardini, Machiavelli and Ficino were all well aware of the importance of patronage, as patrons funded their own historical accounts. [35] Benedetto Dei, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 70-71; Gene Brucker. The word was first seen in English in the 1830s. [22] Leon Battista Alberti, ‘On painting and on sculpture’, 228. the works of PLATO and ARISTOTLE.Typically, this has been seen not only as the rediscovery of the thought and work of the ancients, but as a rebirth of the human spirit, the birth of modern humanism. - everyone should receive a liberal education including readin…. [43] This was because of the humanist education and its emphasis on platonic ideals, as it helped to create the most beautiful pieces of artwork, which were supported by wealthy patrons and occurred in a peaceful and successful commercial republic. - italian … [4] Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 73. social reform and political upheaval. By now it was 2013, and at this point I had a chance conversation with Rob Davies, recently arrived in the British Library’s Publications department. [6]  In so doing humanism placed greater emphasis on the individual and their central role in society and broke away from just upholding the feudal and church dominated ideals of the Medieval Ages. Florence was also a large urbanized city with a large manufacturing sector, especially in cloth, which was the city’s largest industry, and consequently added more economic power to Florence. economic decline. You are free: to Share —to copy, distribute, and transmit the work to Remix Koenigsberger, edited by P. Mack and M.C. In a sense, the only true comparison between the Dark Ages and Renaissance is cultural, and its output. [18] In terms of painting, for example, painters had made a decisive break with medieval tradition, as they had finally understood linear perspective, which made it possible to represent three-dimensional space convincingly on a flat surface. [12] Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, (New York: Harper Touchbooks, 1960), 406; Peter Burke, Culture and Society in Renaissance Italy 1420-1540, (New York: Scribner, 1972), 88-90, 97-98. Nevertheless, these historians also noted that Florence during this period was also characterized by corruption and repression, and the people of Florence had to adhere to Lorenzo’s de-facto rule, whereby their civil liberties were curtailed. My enthusiasm for Golden Age stories dates back to my discovery of Christie when I was eight years old. Petrarch in the fourteenth century initially developed the concept of humanism whereby he aimed to renew interest in classical Greece and Rome. pletchereej | Islam emerged, the Byzantine empire reached its golden age, new kingdoms and dynasties emerged, and Asia and the yet ‘undiscovered’ Americas had their own parallel history. In 476 C.E. [36] This was because Lorenzo’s grandfather had secretly controlled and manipulated the political system to his own advantage, through the accoppiatori system of electing politicians. 4 (Dec., 1943), 163; Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, (London: Penguin Books, 1990), 85. [21] M Ficino. [35] Therefore, the role of trade and banking opened Florence to the world giving it great confidence, and led wealthy Florentines such as bankers to become patrons, in order to help add to the city’s greatness, and in so doing they created an age of magnificence that valued artworks of exceptional quality. [34] Benedetto Dei, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 70-71; Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, p 33; Gene Brucker, Renaissance Florence, 4. Generally considered to stretch from the 14 th century to the 17 th , it started as a cultural explosion in Florence and much like the black plague, spread through all of Europe. 43 (1980), 130; Selwyn Brinton. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. The golden age, the silver age, the bronze age, the heroic age and the iron age. francesco petrarch. I will also only be using fifteenth and sixteenth century historian’s interpretations to show why it was a Golden age. Translated by Mario Domandi, (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 1. Kent. [10] Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 405-407; Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, p 71; Herbert Weisinger, ‘Renaissance Theories of the Revival of the Fine Arts’, 163; Roberta Garner, ‘Jacob Burckhardt as a Theorist of Modernity: Reading the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy’, in Sociological Theory, Vol. [37] Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici’, 1; Niccolo Machiavelli, The Florentine History, 273; F.W. [6] M Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 73; M Ficino, ‘Commentary on Plato’s Symposium on Love: On the Two Origins of Love and the Double Venus’, 119; Peter Burke, The Italian Renaissance: Culture and Society in Italy, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), 15; Paul Oskar Kristeller, ‘Studies on Renaissance Humanism During the Last Twenty Years’, in Studies in the Renaissance, Vol. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), p v; A. [25] M Ficino. [38] Guicciardini stated that it was in this milieu that the city ‘was not free’ and that the citizens were ‘tyrannized’ by Lorenzo. 24, No. [40] Guicciardini also revealed that Lorenzo was extremely suspicious of people and rival families  who wished to undermine his power and used his private army to deal with opponents. Cloudflare Ray ID: 5fe7bb8249da9adc [4] In particular, these historians argued that it was the humanist education of wealthy and talented Florentine individuals, the role played by the patrons, and the fact that Florence was a peaceful commercial republic that were the key features as it why Lorenzo’s period of influence was ‘a Golden Age’, especially in the arts. After WWI, African-Americans from farmlands began to migrate to the cities, like Harlem in New York, to seek new opportunities. [14] According to Machiavelli, patrons like Lorenzo de Medici who was renowned as a cultivator in the arts ‘took great delight in architecture, music and poetry’, and this was emphasized when he opened a university in Pisa, in order to ‘facilitate the study of literature to the youth of Florence’. ‘Lorenzo…amico degli uomini da bene – Lorenzo de’Medici and Oligarchy’, in Lorenzo il Magnifico e il suo mondo, edited by G. C. Garfagnini, (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1994), p 44-45; John M Najemy, ‘Baron’s Machiavelli and Renaissance Republicanism’, in The American Historical Review, Vol. Song of the Week - "Little Talks" by Of Monsters and Men - 30 Oct 2012, Song of the Week - "All My People" by Sasha Lopez - 26 Oct 2012, FDR’S SKETCH: THE FOUR POLICEMEN AND THE FOUNDING OF THE UNITED NATIONS - OCT 2006. Q. [27] Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici’, p 1; Niccolo Machiavelli. [9] In addition, Machiavelli noticed that humanism had also sparked changes in the style of painting, sculpture, and architecture, the building of libraries and universities, and led to new discoveries and inventions such as the printing press, which was also significant. [33] Benedetto Dei, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, complied by P. Simons, in The Renaissance in Italy - Course Reader, compiled by Catherine Kovesi, (University Melbourne, 2005), 70-71; M.M. [43] Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 73. ‘The Astonishing Glories of Lorenzo de’Medici’, in The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, edited by Kenneth Bartlett, (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 128. Lorenzo’s period of influence was also seen as a unique and wonderful age by fifteenth and sixteenth century historians because Florence was at the height of its republicanism. You are free: 55, No. Bullard, ‘The magnificent Lorenzo de’Medici: between myth and history’, 32; Mark Phillips, Francesco Guicciardini: The Historian’s Craft. 30 seconds . This humanist education cannot be underestimated as it also informed the central role played by patrons including Lorenzo de’Medici who supported Florentine individuals such as Leonardo da Vinci, Machiavelli, Guicciardini, Michelangelo, Botticelli and Ficino who were responsible for ‘a Golden Age’ in the arts; of history, philosophy, painting, sculpture and architecture. Kent and Patricia Simons with J.C. Eade, (Canberra: Humanities Research Centre, 1987), 25; Robert Gaston, ‘Liturgy and Patronage in San Lorenzo, Florence, 1350-1650’, in Patronage, Art, and Society in Renaissance Italy, edited by F.W. Many historians assert that it started earlier or ended later, depending on the country. [7] Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 405-407; Charles Trinkaus, Renaissance Transformations of Late Medieval Thought, (Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 1999), 327. [7] The early fifteenth century historian Leonardo Bruni was one of the first to understand its importance, and stated that the revival of ancient learning was exclusively a Florentine achievement and stated that ‘the humanistic studies’, surely were ‘the best and most excellent of studies’. [18] Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 73. ‘Commentary on Plato’s Symposium on Love: On the Two Origins of Love and the Double Venus’, 119; M Ficino. It was in this setting of humanist education and patronage that great works of art were produced, which led to the Renaissance being called ‘a Golden Age’. Renaissance to England’s Golden Age. [22] While, in the field of history and philosophy the invention of the printing press in the late fifteenth century began to revolutionize the dissemination of knowledge. [19] Leon Battista Alberti, ‘On painting and on sculpture’, in The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, edited by Kenneth Bartlett, (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 223. [2] Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, complied by P. Simons, in The Renaissance in Italy - Course Reader, compiled by Catherine Kovesi, (University Melbourne, 2005), 73. 9, (1962), 9; Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, 71. Explaining the Renaissance 3.2.1. [39] Under Lorenzo de-facto rule they were not entitled to free speech and their civil liberties were curtailed. The Renaissance was a rebirth of the human spirit, a rebirth of creativity. [30] In addition, Lorenzo kept the peace by always trying to uplift the citizens of Florence by holding, according to Guicciardini ‘spectacles, feasts, and novel diversions’, which also allowed the arts to flourish. Translated by Sidney Alexander, (London: The Macmillian Company, 1969), p 9; Paul Strathern, The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, (London: Jonathan Cape, 2003), 210; M.M. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in Italy are recognized as one of the most brilliant periods in world art history with Florence in Tuscany, at its heart. Although Fifteenth and sixteenth century historians stated that Florence under Lorenzo’s period of influence was far from a perfect society as political corruption existed and the citizens were not free; they still believed it was ‘a Golden Age’. “The final characteristic separating the Golden Age from the recent renaissance is the growth of security studies within the academic world. The word "Renaissance" in itself is defined as a … secular. [20] In particular, Botticelli Birth of Venus of 1480, which according to Ficino was influenced by Plato’s Symposium On Love, had in fact captured the essence of this Golden Age of the Renaissance through his flowery and beautiful depiction of love and life. Spanish literature: The Renaissance and the Golden Age of Spanish Literature Enter your search terms: The first known novel of chivalry, Amadis of Gaul , was printed in Zaragoza in 1508 and served as a model for the novels of chivalry that became (16th cent.) 09/09/2012 at 11:00 PM. [5] In particular, the humanist education emphasized five subjects, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and ethics, as well as according to Ficino painting, sculpture and architecture. artistic and literary achievements. The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the decline of … star Top subjects are Literature, History, and Law and Politics One could argue that the Renaissance was a golden age in that it represented the high point of … He told me that the Library had reissued three Golden Age mysteries by the highly obscure Mavis Doriel Hay. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. The Golden Age of Drama - The Renaissance The Golden Age of Drama also known as the Elizabethan era went on during the years of Queen Elizabeth’s I reign, between the years 1558-1603. 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