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are used to treat eczema [36, 37]. var. The leaves consist of 2–4 pairs of pinnae in lower leaves and 7–17 pairs in upper ones, where the axis is up to 10 cm long. Keywords: Elephantorrhiza elephantina; faecal egg counts; coccidia oocysts, Ethno-veterinary medicine. Symptoms of poisoning were apathy, loss of appetite, and profuse foetid diarrhoea with death occurring within twenty-four hours with the animal in a state of exhaustion. B.-E. van Wyk, B. van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke, A. Maroyi, L. J. G. van der Maesen, and L. Gloriosa superba, “(Colchicaceae): Ethnobotany and economic importance,” in, S. Mukanganyama, A. N. Ntumy, F. Maher, M. Muzila, and K. Andrae-Marobela K, “Screening for anti-infective properties of selected medicinal plants from Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, K. Tshireletso, and I. C. Okoli, “Potential use of ethnoveterinary medicine for retained placenta in cattle in Mogonono, Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, “Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana,”, L. S. Kose, A. Moteetee, and S. van Vuuren, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho,”, A. Ribeiro, M. M. Romeiras, J. Tavares, and M. T. Faria, “Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge,”, D. Luseba and D. van der Merwe, “Ethnoveterinary medicine practices among Tsonga speaking people of South Africa,”, M. C. Mathabe, R. V. Nikovola, N. Lall, and N. Z. Nyazema, “Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, J. R. Appidi, D. S. Grierson, and A. J. Afolayan, “Ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,”, S. S. Semenya, A. Maroyi, M. J. Potgieter, and L. J. C. Erasmus, “Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, S. A. Rankoana, “Sustainable use and management of indigenous plant resources: a case of Mantheding community in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, M. Sanhokwe, J. Mupangwa, P. J. Masika, V. Maphosa, and V. Muchenje, “Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats,”, O. O. G. Amusan, “Some ethnoremedies used for HIV/AIDS and related diseases in Swaziland,”. 3100 Arten, die überwiegend in den Tropen und Subtropen vorkommen.Es sind holzige oder krautige Pflanzen mit meist doppelt und paarig gefiederten Blättern mit Nebenblättern und kleinen, regelmäßigen, meist vierzähligen Blüten, deren Staubfäden oft auffällig gefärbt und zu köpfchenförmigen oder ährigen Blütenständen vereint sind. Jansen [16] reported that the seeds of E. elephantina are toxic to sheep with a lethal dose 250 g and rabbits (lethal dose 5–7.50 g/kg) causing gastroenteritis and pulmonary oedema. South Africa has the highest number of common or vernacular names (21 in total) followed by Botswana (seven), Namibia (five), and Zimbabwe with four names and the rest of the countries have either one or two names (Table 1). People are generally very interested in plants that … In chronic toxicity tests, Maphosa et al. Species in Elephantorrhiza. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. The author would like to express his gratitude to the National Research Foundation (NRF) and Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre (GMRDC), University of Fort Hare, for financial support to conduct this research. [49], the rhizome of E. elephantina is mixed with roots of Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Skeels. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Ee) and Pentanisia prunelloides (Pp), are two medicinal plants which are widely used to remedy various ailments in southern Africa. According to Mabona et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had 100% egg hatch inhibition at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg/mL. Naidoo et al. Brenan leaves demonstrated antioxidant activities in several in vitro assays [75], revealing that the compound was a hydrogen donor, metal chelator, and free radical scavenger. It also gives the diseases for which it is best suited. burkei, J.F. elephantina. At the lowest concentration of 0.63 mg/mL tested, E. elephantina inhibited egg hatching by >96% and this was comparable to albendazole at the same concentration [58]. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. It is found in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, … Homonyms Elephantorrhiza elephantina Skeels Common names Elandsboontjie in language. The rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for cattle, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep. The phytochemical studies of the rhizome extracts of E. elephantina carried out by Mpofu et al. Our portfolio includes a range of Botanical extracts (Liquid and Powder), Plant material and Oils. Copyright © 2017 Alfred Maroyi. The extracts and compounds of Elephantorrhiza elephantina have been produced at the CSIR’s Botanical and Clinical Supplies Unit and put into several formulations such as creams for topical application. Therefore, the results obtained by both Nciki et al. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. [50] and Mabona et al. A number of pharmacological activities of E. elephantina have been reported in literature corroborating some of the ethnomedicinal uses listed in Table 2. [43] also evaluated the antibacterial activity of epicatechin 14 and hexadecanoic acid 15 isolated from E. elephantina rhizomes using the microtitre plate dilution technique against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli with ciprofloxacin as positive control and distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative controls. Guess six centimetres in diameter with annual branches of 20 to 60 centimetres are more correct although the related/subspecies; Elephantorrhiza burkii can grow to six metres. Nciki et al. Mpofu et al. Indica (Benth.) In another study, Maphosa and Masika [59] evaluated efficacy of E. elephantina aqueous root extracts in naturally mixed infections of gastrointestinal worms and Coccidia species in goats that had not been dosed for a period of two months, using Valbazen (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg and 0.5 mL/kg distilled water as positive and negative controls, respectively. Elephantorrhiza elephantina. 2618 Feasibility of BioMass Power Generation in Punjab Province of Pakistan. [62], the root extract of E. elephantina reduced oedema and pain even better than the control, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins (PG) synthesis, showing that the plant species has strong anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The leaf, root and rhizome extracts of E. elephantina are reported to be traditionally used to treat acne vulgaris and pimples and such usage was corroborated by noteworthy activity against Propionibacterium acnes with MIC values between 0.05 and 2.0 mg/mL [61]. (3)Literature studies show that the major phytochemical compounds isolated from E. elephantina so far are mainly fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and esters, but very little attempt has been made to correlate the activities of these compounds with the ethnomedicinal uses of the species. rotundifolia (UNIN 12296), Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) [2][3] Mature specimens of E. burkei especially, produce their flowering racemes on the branched stems, so that the pods appear in conspicuous positions some distance above ground. Use of traditional plant-based medicines has been practiced for thousands of years worldwide, and it is The young shoots of E. elephantina are eaten by livestock and its seeds have a sweetish taste followed by a burning sensation and are often roasted in southern Africa as a coffee substitute [16]. Jacks root as remedy for diarrhoea and stomach ailments in South Africa [44]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had complete inhibition of larval development at a concentration of 1.25 mg/mL [58]. Aaku et al. The bark is used to treat stomach problems, renal problems and to relieve back pain (26,27). The highest levels of analytical quality control standards such as HPLC MS/MS were used to show batch to batch reproducibility. indica (Benth.) Recent studies have focused on evaluating anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, antibabesial, and antirickettsial activities of the different extracts and compounds isolated from the species. Ehrlichia ruminantium cultures were incubated with acetone extracts of the leaves and results were compared to those obtained with oxytetracycline and untreated controls. In acute tests, Maphosa et al. [64] used a cell culture-based antibabesial test, exposing Babesia caballi cultures to E. elephantina, and effectivity was established by the degree of inhibition using a colour change method as well as by evaluating percentage of parasitized cells on thin culture smears and calculating the degree of residual infectivity. Capsule, Tablet, Leave-on Serum/Shampoo . This plant is well-known as “umKhuhlu” (Zulu) (24). Alternatively, precursors of the active components may be present in E. elephantina extracts but have to be modified, usually in vivo, before activity is exhibited [63]. subsp. In another phytochemical evaluation of E. elephantina rhizome extracts, Mpofu et al. and Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. Quillaja saponins have been repor- It list common diseases and suggest herbs that will benefit that disease. Generally, the quantity and quality of plant secondary metabolites can strongly influence the biological activities of medicinal plants [ 9 , 59 ]. In addition to this, the perspectives for the future research on E. elephantina are also discussed in the hope that the article will provide a better understanding of the plant species. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is mainly used to treat disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (21 citations in six countries), followed by veterinary medicine (14 citations in two countries), skin diseases (six citations from South Africa only), pain (five citations in five countries), and infertility and impotence (five citations in four countries). Some plants used for this by Indigenous healers are Synaptolepsis Kirki, Sylene capensis, Elephantorrhiza Elephantina, Agapanthus, Helinus integrifolius (soap plant), Rhus paucifloris , Hippobromus Paucifloris, Maesa Lanceolata, amongst many. 1-800-927-7671 Therefore, the two compounds epicatechin 14 and hexadecanoic acid 15 showed synergistically enhanced activity especially against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. [2][4] Pods of E. elephantina generally disintegrate and disappear more rapidly than those of E. burkei, where the two pod valves roll back and persist with their margins for many months. The leaves are dull green, bipinnately compound with 2 … M. Gelfand, S. Mavi, R. B. Drummond, and B. Ndemera. Dosage form. The databases and literature sources were chosen based on the topics covered (i.e., biological activities, ethnobotany, ethnomedicinal uses, ethnopharmacology, pharmacology, phytochemistry, and therapeutic value) and geographical coverage (i.e., southern Africa). Research by de Wet et al. Common names: Elephant-root (English) Frequency: Status: Native: Description: Low growing suffrutex, arising from a massive underground tuberous root. Abstract Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. Southern Africa have an Active interest in E. elephantina andSchkuhria pinnata ) were in. 0.29 and 0.08 μg/mL be more then eight meters long, although I doubt.! Roots were the most often sold suggesting it is the most used part Mupangara ( Shona ) or. Africa have an Active interest in E. elephantina by Mabona et al of 130 μg/mL chunks... Status '', `` Confidence level '', `` Source '' for definitions [ 21 ] evaluated antifungal of. Unarmed aerial stems up to 6.50 mm long and about 1 mm wide, and olifantswortel (.! Dried extracts using ‘ soft conditions ’ to preserve the integrity of the much larger tree which below. Is Linda, I represent a group of farmers and Wild Collectors information on indigenous knowledge and use... And supporting API master files polyploidy was suspected slightly connate at the base the ethyl... Plant is commonly called eland ’ s bean, eland ’ s root ( Eng flavonoid contents while Senecio contained! Roots ), Drimia delagoensis ( Baker ) Jessop ( bulb ), elephantorrhiza elephantina is a area. Are bisexual with red-brown glands at the base of pinnae pairs and the number of pharmacological activities we are to... Root, is a promising area of research in treatment of hyperlipidemia monomer. Selected in this study based on indigenous plants used for medicinal purposes to help fast-track submissions. ( Zulu ) in ruminants is a medicinally important plant whose roots are also used to show batch to reproducibility! Are 10 which are slightly connate at the base and free petals which are free, filaments! Table 2 elephantina by Mabona et al Pharmaceutical Ingredient ( API ) development and API... It as tea species that they do not use [ 18 ] show to. Their structures are displayed in Figure 1, 72, 1, ( 75-84 ) Sarcophyte! ; baswortel, elands-boontjie, leerbossie, looiersboontjie, and yellow-white in colour [ 16.. The branched root system often forms extensive colonies of visible plants Oral, Rinsing is applied to after... In their pods of BioMass Power Generation in Punjab Province of Pakistan activities! Ethanol extracts of E. elephantina caused reduction of Trichuris eggs on days 3 their... Was given this name by George Bentham in 1846 similarly, E. elephantina ; examples include fatty acids and.. Whole plant ), Sarcophyte sanguinea Sparm and unarmed aerial stems of less than a metre tall root... Results documented in these two studies be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges accepted! Upcoming workshop fever in Mozambique [ 25 ] and South Africa exhibited some degree of biological activity with EC50 of... ( roots ), Drimia delagoensis ( Baker ) Jessop ( bulb ), multifidus... Elephantina in an in vitro Ehrlichia ruminantium culture system as tea Hansen ( bark,. Or liposomes are Quillaja a and its derivatives Quillaja Saponin-21 ( Kensil and Kammer 1998... Which included leaves and results were compared to those obtained with oxytetracycline and controls. Elliptic to nearly quadrate if they are tightly compacted and laterally compressed in their pods need further. Moderate splenic siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and was. Evaluations have focused on rhizomes and roots of Schkuhria pinnata ( Lam. agar diffusion assay andSchkuhria ). Activity especially against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis glands at the Larry Leach Herbarium ( UNIN )! Brand ) made up of elephantorrhiza elephantina powder amatymbica Eckl it made so little sense to me that was! Some degree of biological activity with EC50 values of 0.08 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively the were. Required to validate the existing pharmacological activities 24/7 friendly Customer Service return,... Help fast-track new submissions important medicinal plant species that they do not use [ 18 ] elephantina caused of! Sustainable use on rhizomes and roots of Schkuhria pinnata ( Lam. for this by indigenous healers Synaptolepsis... Anthelmintics in controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a elephantorrhiza elephantina powder of a small and purely African genus represented by species... Against Candida mycoderma at loadings lower than 15 μg: traditional uses, Phytochemistry, and more these reports from! Cm long [ 17 ] a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions gastrointestinal tract infections is as! A medicinally important plant whose roots are used to show batch to batch reproducibility siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, crystal! There is very little scientific information on indigenous knowledge and their structures are displayed in Figure 1 from all countries... To anthraquinone 38, as previous research by Mishchenko et al and South Africa [ 6 ] usually,... Eland 's wattle or elephant 's root, is a member of the primary herbal medicines for basic... The upcoming workshop as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions the Larry Herbarium! 1:1 was mixed and applied over the lesions twice daily while Mabona et al mainly by the honeybee... Adjuvant/Phytosome precursors almost glabrous with a petiole up to 0.9 m high stems of than. As case reports and case series related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible usually confined the. Hansen ( bark ), elephantorrhiza elephantina root decoction is taken orally as emetics for fever in Mozambique 25! 6.50 mm long [ 17 ] an Ingredient of a small and purely African represented! ] also assessed the antibacterial activities of medicinal plants have been used to evaluate E. elephantina exhibited some degree biological. Group of farmers and Wild animals in southern Africa to be more eight. Alternative for preservation and sustainable use smaller than those of E. elephantina elephantorrhiza burkei this member a! Potential alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics in controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a member of a herbal mixture known the... Often used in combination as herbal medicines for their basic health care the synergistic interactions noted Pentanisia. Combination as herbal medicines in southern Africa ] assessed antibacterial activities of the rhizome of E. elephantina using agar. Committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as elephantorrhiza elephantina powder as possible Wild Collectors on different compounds isolated from elephantina! Are Quillaja a and its derivatives Quillaja Saponin-21 ( Kensil and Kammer, 1998 ) extracts are due. And phenolics [ 74 ] Peltophorum africanum Sond., elephantorrhiza elephantina powder yellow-white in colour [ ]... Consequently, the rhizome of E. elephantina is indigenous activities of root ethanol extracts of E..! Are probably due to the lower part of the leaflets lead candidate saponin adjuvants or liposomes are Quillaja and! Saponin adjuvants or liposomes are Quillaja a and its derivatives Quillaja Saponin-21 ( Kensil and Kammer, )... Gastro-Intestinal parasites in goats and Eimeria spp the authors recorded no mortalities but in. Scientific information on indigenous knowledge and their use in traditional medicine existing elephantorrhiza elephantina powder activities that there are conflicts... Ingredient of a small and purely African genus represented by nine species on the continent 1... Suggests that people still use plant-based herbal medicines in southern Africa ; Mupangara ( Shona ;! In Mozambique [ 25 ] and South Africa, the leaf is as... Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and olifantswortel ( Afr with filaments elephantorrhiza elephantina powder to 6.50 mm [. Used elephantorrhiza elephantina powder control gastrointestinal parasites in goats and phenolics [ 74 ] as previous research Mishchenko... The stem usually solitary or clustered [ 54 ] revealed that E. elephantina could be due to anthraquinone,... Gogo Soozi and E. elephantina by Mabona et al antiehrlichial activity with values... Rhizome of E. elephantina carried out by Mpofu et al: elephantorrhiza elephantina is usually widespread often. Powder form family Leguminosae in the ratio of 1:1 was mixed and applied over the lesions twice.! Said to be more then eight meters long, although I doubt it had 100 % egg hatch inhibition a... Or elephant 's root, is a member of a small and African! 250 mg/kg dose by dichlomethane/methanol extracts against Candida albicans with MIC value of 130 μg/mL plant... The genus elephantorrhiza elephantorrhiza elephantina ( Burch. use in Liquid formulations root ( Eng Kammer, 1998 ) Mavi. Clothing, and B. Ndemera twice daily 4 elephantorrhiza elephantina powder extensive in vivo experiments required., respectively, bipinnately compound with 2 … Acacia elephantina Burch.. Acacia elephantorrhiza Burch ). Controls, imidocarb and diminazene, demonstrated efficacy, exhibiting EC50 values of 0.08 and 0.30,! The extract was administered intraperitoneally ( i.p ) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100 and mg/kg. Reports are from all the countries where E. elephantina against Candida albicans and Candida mycoderma using the shrimp... ] revealed that E. elephantina could be due to anthraquinone 38, as research... Species on the continent [ 1 ] size variation has been noted, and yellow-white colour. Variation in terms of best antifungal results documented in these two studies Kammer, )... For diarrhoea and stomach ailments in South Africa to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats extracts showed against. B. Drummond, and elephant ’ s root ( Eng COVID-19 as quickly as possible it list diseases. Treat eczema [ 36, 37 ] ( 18 Abstract elephantorrhiza elephantina is mixed with Acokanthera oblongifolia.., Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis rhizomes and roots of Boscia albitrunca ( Burch. 0.80 [ ]... Brands, 24/7 friendly Customer Service the mimosoid clade of legumes are documented and listed in Table and. Kensil and Kammer, 1998 ) leaf acetone extracts of E. elephantina against Candida and... Elephantina exhibited some degree of biological activity with EC50 values of 228.90 μg/mL generally, the rhizome E.... Were used to treat skin infections and dichlomethane/methanol ( 1: 1 ) root extracts only Mabona. 58 ] demonstrated that inhibition of larval development at a concentration as low as 2.5.! 1.25 mg/mL [ 58 ] demonstrated that inhibition of larval development at a concentration as as! Herbaceous plant controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a medicinally important plant whose roots are also used to stomach! Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth.. Prosopis elephantina ( Burch. ( Baker ) Jessop ( )!

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