are used to treat eczema [36, 37]. var. The leaves consist of 2–4 pairs of pinnae in lower leaves and 7–17 pairs in upper ones, where the axis is up to 10 cm long. Keywords: Elephantorrhiza elephantina; faecal egg counts; coccidia oocysts, Ethno-veterinary medicine. Symptoms of poisoning were apathy, loss of appetite, and profuse foetid diarrhoea with death occurring within twenty-four hours with the animal in a state of exhaustion. B.-E. van Wyk, B. van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke, A. Maroyi, L. J. G. van der Maesen, and L. Gloriosa superba, “(Colchicaceae): Ethnobotany and economic importance,” in, S. Mukanganyama, A. N. Ntumy, F. Maher, M. Muzila, and K. Andrae-Marobela K, “Screening for anti-infective properties of selected medicinal plants from Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, K. Tshireletso, and I. C. Okoli, “Potential use of ethnoveterinary medicine for retained placenta in cattle in Mogonono, Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, “Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana,”, L. S. Kose, A. Moteetee, and S. van Vuuren, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho,”, A. Ribeiro, M. M. Romeiras, J. Tavares, and M. T. Faria, “Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge,”, D. Luseba and D. van der Merwe, “Ethnoveterinary medicine practices among Tsonga speaking people of South Africa,”, M. C. Mathabe, R. V. Nikovola, N. Lall, and N. Z. Nyazema, “Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, J. R. Appidi, D. S. Grierson, and A. J. Afolayan, “Ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,”, S. S. Semenya, A. Maroyi, M. J. Potgieter, and L. J. C. Erasmus, “Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, S. A. Rankoana, “Sustainable use and management of indigenous plant resources: a case of Mantheding community in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, M. Sanhokwe, J. Mupangwa, P. J. Masika, V. Maphosa, and V. Muchenje, “Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats,”, O. O. G. Amusan, “Some ethnoremedies used for HIV/AIDS and related diseases in Swaziland,”. 3100 Arten, die überwiegend in den Tropen und Subtropen vorkommen.Es sind holzige oder krautige Pflanzen mit meist doppelt und paarig gefiederten Blättern mit Nebenblättern und kleinen, regelmäßigen, meist vierzähligen Blüten, deren Staubfäden oft auffällig gefärbt und zu köpfchenförmigen oder ährigen Blütenständen vereint sind. Jansen  reported that the seeds of E. elephantina are toxic to sheep with a lethal dose 250 g and rabbits (lethal dose 5–7.50 g/kg) causing gastroenteritis and pulmonary oedema. South Africa has the highest number of common or vernacular names (21 in total) followed by Botswana (seven), Namibia (five), and Zimbabwe with four names and the rest of the countries have either one or two names (Table 1). People are generally very interested in plants that … In chronic toxicity tests, Maphosa et al. Species in Elephantorrhiza. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. The author would like to express his gratitude to the National Research Foundation (NRF) and Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre (GMRDC), University of Fort Hare, for financial support to conduct this research. , the rhizome of E. elephantina is mixed with roots of Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Skeels. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Ee) and Pentanisia prunelloides (Pp), are two medicinal plants which are widely used to remedy various ailments in southern Africa. According to Mabona et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had 100% egg hatch inhibition at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg/mL. Naidoo et al. Brenan leaves demonstrated antioxidant activities in several in vitro assays , revealing that the compound was a hydrogen donor, metal chelator, and free radical scavenger. It also gives the diseases for which it is best suited. burkei, J.F. elephantina. At the lowest concentration of 0.63 mg/mL tested, E. elephantina inhibited egg hatching by >96% and this was comparable to albendazole at the same concentration . Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. It is found in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, … Homonyms Elephantorrhiza elephantina Skeels Common names Elandsboontjie in language. The rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for cattle, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep. The phytochemical studies of the rhizome extracts of E. elephantina carried out by Mpofu et al. Our portfolio includes a range of Botanical extracts (Liquid and Powder), Plant material and Oils. Copyright © 2017 Alfred Maroyi. The extracts and compounds of Elephantorrhiza elephantina have been produced at the CSIR’s Botanical and Clinical Supplies Unit and put into several formulations such as creams for topical application. Therefore, the results obtained by both Nciki et al. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth.  and Mabona et al. A number of pharmacological activities of E. elephantina have been reported in literature corroborating some of the ethnomedicinal uses listed in Table 2.  also evaluated the antibacterial activity of epicatechin 14 and hexadecanoic acid 15 isolated from E. elephantina rhizomes using the microtitre plate dilution technique against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli with ciprofloxacin as positive control and distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative controls. Guess six centimetres in diameter with annual branches of 20 to 60 centimetres are more correct although the related/subspecies; Elephantorrhiza burkii can grow to six metres. Nciki et al. Mpofu et al. Indica (Benth.) In another study, Maphosa and Masika  evaluated efficacy of E. elephantina aqueous root extracts in naturally mixed infections of gastrointestinal worms and Coccidia species in goats that had not been dosed for a period of two months, using Valbazen (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg and 0.5 mL/kg distilled water as positive and negative controls, respectively. Elephantorrhiza elephantina. 2618 Feasibility of BioMass Power Generation in Punjab Province of Pakistan. , the root extract of E. elephantina reduced oedema and pain even better than the control, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins (PG) synthesis, showing that the plant species has strong anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The leaf, root and rhizome extracts of E. elephantina are reported to be traditionally used to treat acne vulgaris and pimples and such usage was corroborated by noteworthy activity against Propionibacterium acnes with MIC values between 0.05 and 2.0 mg/mL . (3)Literature studies show that the major phytochemical compounds isolated from E. elephantina so far are mainly fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and esters, but very little attempt has been made to correlate the activities of these compounds with the ethnomedicinal uses of the species. rotundifolia (UNIN 12296), Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.)  Mature specimens of E. burkei especially, produce their flowering racemes on the branched stems, so that the pods appear in conspicuous positions some distance above ground. Use of traditional plant-based medicines has been practiced for thousands of years worldwide, and it is The young shoots of E. elephantina are eaten by livestock and its seeds have a sweetish taste followed by a burning sensation and are often roasted in southern Africa as a coffee substitute . Jacks root as remedy for diarrhoea and stomach ailments in South Africa . Elephantorrhiza elephantina had complete inhibition of larval development at a concentration of 1.25 mg/mL . Aaku et al. The bark is used to treat stomach problems, renal problems and to relieve back pain (26,27). The highest levels of analytical quality control standards such as HPLC MS/MS were used to show batch to batch reproducibility. indica (Benth.) Recent studies have focused on evaluating anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, antibabesial, and antirickettsial activities of the different extracts and compounds isolated from the species. Ehrlichia ruminantium cultures were incubated with acetone extracts of the leaves and results were compared to those obtained with oxytetracycline and untreated controls. In acute tests, Maphosa et al.  used a cell culture-based antibabesial test, exposing Babesia caballi cultures to E. elephantina, and effectivity was established by the degree of inhibition using a colour change method as well as by evaluating percentage of parasitized cells on thin culture smears and calculating the degree of residual infectivity. Capsule, Tablet, Leave-on Serum/Shampoo . This plant is well-known as “umKhuhlu” (Zulu) (24). Alternatively, precursors of the active components may be present in E. elephantina extracts but have to be modified, usually in vivo, before activity is exhibited . subsp. In another phytochemical evaluation of E. elephantina rhizome extracts, Mpofu et al. and Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. Quillaja saponins have been repor- It list common diseases and suggest herbs that will benefit that disease. Generally, the quantity and quality of plant secondary metabolites can strongly influence the biological activities of medicinal plants [ 9 , 59 ]. In addition to this, the perspectives for the future research on E. elephantina are also discussed in the hope that the article will provide a better understanding of the plant species. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is mainly used to treat disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (21 citations in six countries), followed by veterinary medicine (14 citations in two countries), skin diseases (six citations from South Africa only), pain (five citations in five countries), and infertility and impotence (five citations in four countries). Some plants used for this by Indigenous healers are Synaptolepsis Kirki, Sylene capensis, Elephantorrhiza Elephantina, Agapanthus, Helinus integrifolius (soap plant), Rhus paucifloris , Hippobromus Paucifloris, Maesa Lanceolata, amongst many. 1-800-927-7671 Therefore, the two compounds epicatechin 14 and hexadecanoic acid 15 showed synergistically enhanced activity especially against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.  Pods of E. elephantina generally disintegrate and disappear more rapidly than those of E. burkei, where the two pod valves roll back and persist with their margins for many months. The leaves are dull green, bipinnately compound with 2 … M. Gelfand, S. Mavi, R. B. Drummond, and B. Ndemera. Dosage form. The databases and literature sources were chosen based on the topics covered (i.e., biological activities, ethnobotany, ethnomedicinal uses, ethnopharmacology, pharmacology, phytochemistry, and therapeutic value) and geographical coverage (i.e., southern Africa). Research by de Wet et al. Common names: Elephant-root (English) Frequency: Status: Native: Description: Low growing suffrutex, arising from a massive underground tuberous root. Abstract Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. 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Acacia elephantorrhiza Burch ). Controls, imidocarb and diminazene, demonstrated efficacy, exhibiting EC50 values of 0.08 and 0.30,! The extract was administered intraperitoneally ( i.p ) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100 and mg/kg. Reports are from all the countries where E. elephantina against Candida albicans and Candida mycoderma using the shrimp... ] revealed that E. elephantina could be due to anthraquinone 38, as research... Species on the continent [ 1 ] size variation has been noted, and yellow-white colour. Variation in terms of best antifungal results documented in these two studies Kammer, )... For diarrhoea and stomach ailments in South Africa to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats extracts showed against. B. Drummond, and elephant ’ s root ( Eng COVID-19 as quickly as possible it list diseases. Treat eczema [ 36, 37 ] ( 18 Abstract elephantorrhiza elephantina is mixed with Acokanthera oblongifolia.., Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis rhizomes and roots of Boscia albitrunca ( Burch. 0.80 [ ]... Brands, 24/7 friendly Customer Service the mimosoid clade of legumes are documented and listed in Table and. Kensil and Kammer, 1998 ) leaf acetone extracts of E. elephantina against Candida and... Elephantina exhibited some degree of biological activity with EC50 values of 228.90 μg/mL generally, the rhizome E.... Were used to treat skin infections and dichlomethane/methanol ( 1: 1 ) root extracts only Mabona. 58 ] demonstrated that inhibition of larval development at a concentration as low as 2.5.! 1.25 mg/mL [ 58 ] demonstrated that inhibition of larval development at a concentration as as! Herbaceous plant controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a medicinally important plant whose roots are also used to stomach! Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth.. Prosopis elephantina ( Burch. ( Baker ) Jessop ( )!
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